buffer stock

Buffer Stock (Meaning, Example)| Diagram of Buffer Stock Scheme

buffer stock

Buffer stock system can be defined as a government scheme that is used for the purpose of stabilizing prices in a volatile market in which stocks are bought and stored during good harvests in order to disallow prices from falling below the price levels or a target range and stocks are released during harvests for preventing prices to rise above the price levels or a target range.

Below is the buffer stock diagram. In the diagram, it can be observed that in case the price of the stocks decreases from P to P2 (at times of the good harvests), then the stocks will be bought or stored in order to prevent falling of the prices of the goods below a target price range i.e.

, with this buffer stock mechanism the price will adjust itself to the normal target price range.

On the other side, that in case the price of the stocks increases from P to P1 (at times of the bad harvests), then the stocks will be released in order to prevent the rising of prices of the goods above a target price range.

#1 – Genesis Wheat Stores

In genesis wheat stores, Joseph stored stock of wheat for at least 7 years of feast, and in this way; it became possible for him to distribute wheat from his stores during the 7 years of famine.

#2 – Ever-Normal Granary

It was established in China in the first century with the aim of stabilizing supply by means of purchasing grains during good years and getting the same distributed to regions that are facing shortages. Henry A. Wallace revived this idea from the history of Chinese culture.

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#3 – Eu Cap or Common Agricultural Policy

This policy comprised of minimum prices for multiple foodstuffs. This encouraged oversupply of various foodstuffs. As a result of this phenomenon, the EU was left with no choice other than buying the surplus. The surplus was then stored in huge warehouses.

However, this scheme turned out to be a failure since it became highly expensive for the participants to continue purchasing the surplus. Also, there was hardly any shortage.

At least, the EU was compelled to implement quotas in order to limit the excess of supplies and common agricultural policy was slowly reformed in order to minimize the overall targeted minimum prices.

Difference Between Buffer Stock and Safety Stock

Buffer stock and safety stock are often used interchangeably. This often creates confusion.

The difference that distinguishes buffer stock from safety stock is that Buffer stock system protects the customer from the producer during the time when there is an abrupt change in the demand of a particular product.

On the other hand, the safety stock system protects the producers from probabilities incapability in their upstream processes and their suppliers.

Importance

The importance of the buffer stock system is realized during the fixation of procurement targets. Buffers stocks are excess of stocks of food items that are stored in the godowns. This system helps in the even distribution of food items in various parts of a particular country.

These food stocks can be taken into use for satisfying the food requirements during the time when there is a fall in production levels on account of diseases in crops, or due to extreme weather conditions such as droughts and floods. It helps in regulating and controlling prices constantly.

With this system, sending food supplies to areas in distress on time gets really convenient.

Advantages

Some of the advantages are given below:

  • It helps in the regulation of food supplies and eliminates or minimizes the probabilities of food shortages too.
  • This system helps in maintaining price stability which further encourages a higher level of investment in agriculture.
  • It helps in eliminating the probabilities of a sudden drop in price levels that have the tendency of putting farmers business and even leads to a rise in the unemployment level. It helps the farmers in maintaining their incomes by regulating the price levels.
  • Buffer stock scheme allows the government to earn tremendous profits by allowing the same to purchase stocks during a glut and sell off those stocks during a shortage.

Disadvantages

Some of the disadvantages are given below:

  • This system might require the government to collect higher taxes to cope up with the costs of buying in excess.
  • There are certain perishable goods that cannot be stored in a buffer’s stock system such as milk, meat, etc.
  • This scheme might generate administration costs.
  • Government agencies might not always have the adequate and correct information and therefore, it might tricky to learn whether there is any surplus or not.
  • The requirement to pay tariffs upon imports for paying off the bare minimum prices for foodstuffs.

Conclusion

Buffer stock system can be learned as a government scheme that is used for the purpose of stabilizing prices in a volatile market.

The scheme aims at stabilizing the prices, ensuring the uninterrupted supply of goods, and preventing farmers and producers from going business as a result of an unexpected fall in prices.

Genesis wheat stores, ever-normal granary, EU cap, International cocoa Organization (ICCO), and 1970 wool floor price scheme Australia are few examples of a buffer stock scheme.

This has been a guide to buffer stock and its meaning. Here we discuss examples and differences between buffer stock & safety stock along with advantages and disadvantages. You may learn more about financing from the following articles –

Источник: https://www.wallstreetmojo.com/buffer-stock/

Перевод — buffer stock — с английского — на русский

buffer stock

  • 1 buffer stock buffer stock econ. резервный запас Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > buffer stock
  • 2 buffer stock
    1. резервный запас
    2. буферный запас

    ; буферный запас Запас товара, принадлежащий государству или коммерческой организации, используемый для стабилизации цены на этот товар. Обычно менеджер, отвечающий за буферные запасы, уполномочивается покупать данный товар, если его цена падает ниже определенного уровня, который, в свою очередь, регулярно пересматривается. Это делается для того, чтобы производители данного товара имели возможность продавать его с приемлемым уровнем рентабельности. Если цена на товар поднимается выше определенного уровня, менеджер, ответственный за буферные запасы, должен продавать их на открытом рынке. Таким образом, производители получают стимул поддерживать устойчивый уровень поставок данного товара, а потребители-уверенность в том, что цена на него может изменяться только в известных пределах. Такие манипуляции с буферными запасами часто оказываются эффективными, однако во время бума или кризиса могут провалиться. См. также: United Nations Common Fund for Commodities (Общий фонд ООН по товарам).[ http://www.vocable.ru/dictionary/533/symbol/97] буферный запасПрограмма или институт, учреждаемый с целью стабилизации товарного рынка. Государство накапливает крупный запас товаров, и в те моменты, когда цена данного товара превышает уровень, признанный нормальным, – выбрасывает их на рынок. (Это называется товарной интервенцией.) Когда же цена оказывается очень низкой – буферные запасы пополняются с помощью государственных закупок.[ http://slovar-lopatnikov.ru/]

EN

;

резервный запас
буферный запас

[Англо-русский глоссарий основных терминов по вакцинологии и иммунизации. Всемирная организация здравоохранения, 2009 г

.]

Buffer Stocks

buffer stock

Definition of Buffer Stock Scheme

A buffer stock scheme is a government plan to stabilise prices in volatile markets. This requires intervention in buying and selling.

Prices for agricultural products are often volatile because:

Buffer stock schemes aim to:

  • Stabilise prices
  • Ensure the supply of food
  • Prevent farmers/producers going business because of a drop in prices.

Diagram of Buffer Stock Scheme

If there is a very good harvest and supply increases to S2, the market price would fall to P2.

This price is below the target price (TP)

To maintain the price at TP, the government will need to buy the surplus stocks (Q2-Q1) and store the goods. This reduces supply on the market and effectively keeps prices at the target price.

Buffer Stock with a shortage

In this case, there is a fall in supply. In a free market, the price would rise to P2 (above the target price)

To reduce prices back down to target price, the government need to sell goods from the buffer stock and effectively increase supply back to S1.

Advantages of buffer stocks

  1. Stable prices help maintain farmers incomes. A rapid drop in prices can make farmers go business, which leads to structural unemployment.
  2. Price stability encourages more investment in agriculture.
  3. Farming can have positive externalities e.g.

    helps rural communities. A drop in price could cause a negative multiplier effect within rural areas.

  4. Target prices help prevent excess prices for consumers and help reduce food inflation.

    This might be important for households living in poverty, who may struggle to pay high prices during years of shortage.

  5. It helps to maintain food supplies and avoid shortages.
  6. It is possible the government could make a profit from a buffer stock scheme.

    If it buys during a glut and sells during a shortage, it can make a profit.

Problems of buffer stocks

  1. Cost of buying excess supply could become quite high for the government and may require higher taxes.
  2. Minimum prices and buffer stocks could encourage oversupply as farmers know any surplus will be bought.

    It could even encourage excess use of chemicals to maximise yields because farmers know any excess supply can be sold – even if the market doesn’t want it.

  3. Government subsidy to farmers may encourage inefficiency amongst farmers. There may be less incentive to cut costs and respond to market pressures.

  4. Some goods cannot be stored in buffer stocks, e.g. fresh milk, meat e.t.c.
  5. Government agencies may have poor information e.g. what price to set, how much to buy? is there really a surplus? In practice, it can be difficult to know whether there is a surplus until later in the year.
  6. Administration costs of the scheme.
  7. Minimum prices for foodstuffs may require tariffs on imports.
  8. Globalised markets. Agriculture is a globalised market. If some countries form a buffer stock scheme and buy excess supply, they may find that other countries ‘free-ride’ on their efforts to keep prices high and undercut them.
  9. Are buffer stocks designed to help producers or consumers? Often agricultural buffer stocks are aimed at providing minimum prices and minimum incomes for farmers

Examples of Buffer Stocks

Genesis Wheat stores. In Genesis, Joseph stored wheat during the seven years of feast, so during the seven years of famine, he was able to distribute wheat from the stores.

“So he gathered all the food of these seven years which occurred in the land of Egypt and placed the food in the cities; he placed in every city the food from its own surrounding fields.” Genesis 41:48

Ever-normal granary 

Established in the first century BC in China. The aim was to stabilise supply, buying grain in good years and distributing to regions suffering shortages. The idea was revived by Henry A. Wallace (a future adviser to Pres.

Roosevelt) He took the idea from Chinese history and gave it this term. In 1929, the US implemented forms of agricultural intervention.

From these 1930s schemes, government support for agriculture has grown and proven difficult to take away.

EU Common Agricultural Policy

The CAP included minimum prices for many foodstuffs. As a result, it encouraged over-supply. The European Union were forced to buy the surplus. This surplus was stored in huge barns and warehouses. (known as butter mountains, wine lakes, grain mountains)

The scheme was largely a failure because it became very expensive to keep buying the surplus. There was never any real shortage. In the end, the EU had to start implementing quotas to limit excess supply. CAP was slowly reformed to reduce the target minimum prices.

1970 Wool Floor Price Scheme Australia

This aimed to stabilise the price of wool. The advantage is that wool is easy to store. In years of high supply, the government would buy and store the excess wool. In times of shortage, the government would release wool from the stores.

The scheme was abandoned as it primarily became about the government buying wool. There was a period of declining demand, and the scheme merely encouraged farmers to keep producing wool – rather than respond to changing market signals.

International Cocoa Organization (ICCO)

In 2017, the Ivory Coast and Ghana planned to revive a buffer stock scheme for cocoa. The Ivory Coast and Ghana control over 60% of the world’s supply. In 2017, they face the prospect of a global surplus of 371,000 tonnes – which will lead to plummeting prices and less export revenue.

The Ivory Coast chief of staff to trade minister – Narcisse Sepy Yessoh said:

“Must we continue on this path, flooding the market with beans in abundance and driving down prices to the detriment of our economies and people? We don’t think so,”

The Ivory Coast plans to build warehouses with the capacity to store 250,000 tonnes of cocoa. One paper suggested that periods of buffer stock intervention were relatively successful in stabilising farm incomes. (Commodity buffer stock redux: The role of the International Cocoa Organization in prices and incomes 2011. Link Raymond Swaray)

Related

  • Common Agricultural Policy
  • Market failure in agriculture
  • Cobweb theory

Источник: https://www.economicshelp.org/blog/glossary/buffer-stocks/

Western blot buffers and stock solutions

buffer stock

  • 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0
  • 150 mM NaCl
  • 1% IGEPAL CA-630
  • 0.5% sodium deoxycholate
  • ​0.1% SDS
  • Protease inhibitors

​The 10% sodium deoxycholate stock solution (5 g into 50 mL) must be protected from light.

NP-40 buffer 

  • 150 mM NaCl
  • 1.0% NP-40 (possible to substitute with 0.1% Triton X-100)
  • 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0
  • Protease inhibitors

​​Tris-HCl

  •  20mM Tris-HCl
  • Protease inhibitors

Cytoskeletal bound proteins extract buffer

  • 10 mM Tris, pH 7.4
  • 100 mM NaCl
  • 1 mM EDTA
  • 1 mM EGTA
  • 1 mM NaF
  • ​20 mM Na4P2O7
  • 2 mM Na3VO4
  • 1% Triton X-100
  • 10% glycerol
  • 0.1% SDS
  • 0.5% deoxycholate

Soluble protein buffer

20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5
1 mM EGTA (Ca2+​ chelator)

Loading, running, transfer, and blocking buffers

Loading buffer/Laemmli 2X buffer

  • 4% SDS
  • 10% 2-mercaptoethanol
  • 20% glycerol
  • 0.004% bromophenol blue
  • 0.125 M Tris-HCl
  • Check the pH and adjust it to 6.8

Running buffer (Tris-Glycine/SDS)

  • 25 mM Tris base
  • 190 mM glycine
  •  0.1% SDS
  • Check the pH and adjust to 8.3

Transfer buffer (wet)

  • 25 mM Tris base
  • 190 mM glycine
  •  20% methanol
  • Check the pH and adjust to 8.3
  • For proteins >80 kDa, we recommend including SDS at a final concentration of 0.1%.

Transfer buffer (semi-dry)

  • 48 mM Tris
  • 39 mM glycine
  • 20% methanol
  • 0.04% SDS

Blocking buffer

  • 3–5% milk or BSA (bovine serum albumin)
  • Add to the TBST buffer. Mix well and filter. Failure to filter can lead to spotting, where tiny dark grains will contaminate the blot during color development.

Sodium orthovanadate preparation

All procedures must be carried out under the fume hood.

  1. Prepare a 100 mM sodium orthovanadate solution with double distilled water
  2. Set pH to 9.0 with HCl
  3. Boil until colorless
  4. Cool to room temperature
  5. Set pH to 9.0 again
  6. Boil again until colorless
  7. Repeat this cycle until the solution remains at pH 9.0 after boiling and cooling
  8. Bring up to the initial volume with water
  9. Store in aliquots at -20°C
  10. Discard if the samples turn yellow

Avoid large changes in volume during boiling; put a loose lid on the container to protect from evaporation.

TBS 10x (concentrated Tris-buffered saline)

For 1 L:24 g Tris base (formula weight: 121.1 g)88 g NaCl (formula weight: 58.4 g)Dissolve in 900 mL distilled waterpH to 7.6 with 12 N HCl

Add distilled water to a final volume of 1 L

For a 1x solution, mix 1 part of the 10x solution with 9 parts distilled water and adjust pH to 7.6 again. The final molar concentrations of the 1x solution are 20 mM Tris and 150 mM NaCl. 

An alternative recipe for Tris buffer combines Tris base and Tris-HCl. This avoids the large volume of potentially hazardous hydrochloric acid that is needed to neutralize a solution of Tris base alone.

TBS 10x alternative recipe (concentrated Tris-buffered saline)

For 1 L:24 g Tris-HCl (formula weight: 157.6 g)5.6 g Tris base (formula weight: 121.1 g)88 g NaCl (formula weight: 58.4 g)

Dissolve in 900 mL distilled water

  1. The pH of the solution should be about 7.6 at room temperature. If too basic, adjust to pH 7.6 with concentrated HCl, and if too acidic, adjust with concentrated NaOH.
  2. Add distilled water to a final volume of 1 L.
  3. For a 1x solution, mix 1 part 10x with 9 parts distilled water and pH to 7.6 again.
  4. The final molar concentrations of the 1x solution are 20 mM Tris and 150 mM NaCl.

TBST (Tris-buffered saline, 0.1% Tween 20)

For 1 L:100 mL of TBS 10×900 mL distilled water

1 mL Tween 20

Medium stripping buffer

15 g glycine1 g SDS

10 mL Tween 20

  1. Adjust the volume to 800 mL with ultra pure water.
  2. Adjust pH to 2.2.
  3. Bring volume up to 1 L with distilled water.

Harsh stripping buffer

This needs to be done under a fume hood.

For 100 mL:20 mL SDS 10%12.5 mL Tris HCl, pH 6.8, 0.5 M67.5 mL distilled water

​Add 0.8 mL β-mercaptoethanol under the fume hood

Nuclear fractionation protocol reagents buffer A

10 mM HEPES
​1.5 mM MgCl210 mM KCl0.5 DTT

​0.05% NP-40 (or 0.05% Igepal or Tergitol) pH 7.9

To prepare 250 mL stock of buffer A:HEPES: 1 M = 238.3 g/L, therefore 10 mM = 0.59 g/250 mL

MgCl2: 1 M = 203.3 g/L, therefore 1.5 mM = 0.076 g/250 mL

KCl: 1 M = 74.5 g/L, therefore 10 mM = 0.187 g/250 mLDTT: 1 M = 154.2 g/L, therefore 0.5 mM = 0.019 g/250 mL

NP-40: 0.05%

Nuclear fractionation protocol reagents buffer B

5 mM HEPES1.5 mM MgCl2​0.2 mM EDTA0.5 mM DTT

26% glycerol (v/v) pH 7.9

To prepare 250 mL stock of buffer B:HEPES: 1 M = 238.3 g/L, therefore 5 mM = 0.295 g/250 mLMgCl2: 1 M = 203.3 g/L, therefore 1.5 mM = 0.076 g/250 mLEDTA: 1 M = 372.2 g/L, therefore 0.2 mM = 0.0186 g/250 mLDTT: 1 M = 154.2 g/L, therefore 0.5 mM = 0.019 g/250 mL

​26% glycerol (v/v) = 65 mL

TBS 0.025% Triton X-100

For 1 L:250 µL Triton X-100

1 L TBS pH 7.6–7.8

1.6% H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) in TBS

For 400 mL:
6.4 mL H2O2 (GPR = 30% w/w)
393.6 mL TBS pH 7.6–7.8

Primary antibody made up in TBS with 1% BSA

Example is of primary antibody used at a dilution of 1:10.

For 1 mL:​100 µL primary antibody10 mg BSA

900 µL TBS pH 7.6–7.8

ABC (avidin-biotin complex) in TBS

Example is of ABC, each part used at a dilution of 1:100.

For 1 mL:10 µL Streptavidin​10 µL HRP (or AP)-biotin

980 µL TBS pH 7.6–7.8

Bicarbonate/carbonate coating buffer (100 mM)

3.03 g Na2CO3
6.0 g NaHCO​3 (1 L distilled water) pH 9.6
​PBS: 1.16 g Na2HPO40.1 g KCl

​0.1 g K3PO4

​4 g NaCl (500 mL distilled water) pH 7.4

Protocols are provided by Abcam “AS-IS” experimentation in Abcam’s labs using Abcam’s reagents and products; your results from using protocols outside of these conditions may vary.

Источник: https://www.abcam.com/protocols/buffer-and-stock-solutions-for-western-blot

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